LLD - The LLVM Linker
LLD is a linker from the LLVM project. That is a drop-in replacement
for system linkers and runs much faster than them. It also provides
features that are useful for toolchain developers.
The linker supports ELF (Unix), PE/COFF (Windows) and Mach-O (macOS)
in descending order of completeness. Internally, LLD consists of three
different linkers. The ELF port is the one that will be described in
this document. The PE/COFF port is almost complete except the lack of
the Windows debug info (PDB) support. The Mach-O port is built based
on a different architecture than the ELF or COFF ports. For the
details about Mach-O, please read ATOM-based lld.
LLD is a drop-in replacement for the GNU linkers. That accepts the
same command line arguments and linker scripts as GNU.
We are currently working closely with the FreeBSD project to make
LLD default system linker in future versions of the operating
system, so we are serious about addressing compatibility issues. As
of February 2017, LLD is able to link the entire FreeBSD/amd64 base
system including the kernel. With a few work-in-progress patches it
can link approximately 95% of the ports collection on AMD64. For the
details, see FreeBSD quarterly status report.
LLD is very fast. When you link a large program on a multicore
machine, you can expect that LLD runs more than twice as fast as GNU
gold linker. Your milage may vary, though.
It supports various CPUs/ABIs including x86-64, x86, x32, AArch64,
ARM, MIPS 32/64 big/little-endian, PowerPC, PowerPC 64 and AMDGPU.
Among these, x86-64 is the most well-supported target and have
reached production quality. AArch64 and MIPS seem decent too. x86
should be OK but not well tested yet. ARM support is being developed
It is always a cross-linker, meaning that it always supports all the
above targets however it was built. In fact, we don’t provide a
build-time option to enable/disable each target. This should make it
easy to use our linker as part of a cross-compile toolchain.
You can embed LLD to your program to eliminate dependency to
external linkers. All you have to do is to construct object files
and command line arguments just like you would do to invoke an
external linker and then call the linker’s main function,
lld::elf::link, from your code.
It is small. We are using LLVM libObject library to read from object
files, so it is not completely a fair comparison, but as of February
2017, LLD/ELF consists only of 21k lines of C++ code while GNU gold
consists of 198k lines of C++ code.
Link-time optimization (LTO) is supported by default. Essentially,
all you have to do to do LTO is to pass the
-flto option to clang.
Then clang creates object files not in the native object file format
but in LLVM bitcode format. LLD reads bitcode object files, compile
them using LLVM and emit an output file. Because in this way LLD can
see the entire program, it can do the whole program optimization.
Some very old features for ancient Unix systems (pre-90s or even
before that) have been removed. Some default settings have been
tuned for the 21st century. For example, the stack is marked as
non-executable by default to tighten security.
This is a link time comparison on a 2-socket 20-core 40-thread Xeon
E5-2680 2.80 GHz machine with an SSD drive.
LLD is much faster than the GNU linkers for large programs. That’s
fast for small programs too, but because the link time is short
anyway, the difference is not very noticeable in that case.
Note that this is just a benchmark result of our environment.
Depending on number of available cores, available amount of memory or
disk latency/throughput, your results may vary.
If you have already checked out LLVM using SVN, you can check out LLD
tools directory just like you probably did for clang. For the
details, see Getting Started with the LLVM System.
If you haven’t checkout out LLVM, the easiest way to build LLD is to
checkout the entire LLVM projects/sub-projects from a git mirror and
build that tree. You need cmake and of course a C++ compiler.
$ git clone https://github.com/llvm-project/llvm-project/
$ mkdir build
$ cd build
$ cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release -DLLVM_ENABLE_PROJECTS=lld -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local ../llvm-project/llvm
$ make install
LLD is installed as
ld.lld. On Unix, linkers are invoked by
compiler drivers, so you are not expected to use that command
directly. There are a few ways to tell compiler drivers to use ld.lld
instead of the default linker.
The easiest way to do that is to overwrite the default linker. After
installing LLD to somewhere on your disk, you can create a symbolic
link by doing
ln -s /path/to/ld.lld /usr/bin/ld so that
/usr/bin/ld is resolved to LLD.
If you don’t want to change the system setting, you can use clang’s
-fuse-ld option. In this way, you want to set
LDFLAGS when building your programs.
LLD leaves its name and version number to a
.comment section in an
output. If you are in doubt whether you are successfully using LLD or
objdump -s -j .comment <output-file> and examine the
output. If the string “Linker: LLD” is included in the output, you are
Here is a brief project history of the ELF and COFF ports.
- May 2015: We decided to rewrite the COFF linker and did that.
Noticed that the new linker is much faster than the MSVC linker.
- July 2015: The new ELF port was developed based on the COFF linker
- September 2015: The first patches to support MIPS and AArch64 landed.
- October 2015: Succeeded to self-host the ELF port. We have noticed
that the linker was faster than the GNU linkers, but we weren’t sure
at the time if we would be able to keep the gap as we would add more
features to the linker.
- July 2016: Started working on improving the linker script support.
- December 2016: Succeeded to build the entire FreeBSD base system
including the kernel. We had widen the performance gap against the
For the internals of the linker, please read The ELF and COFF Linkers. It is a bit
outdated but the fundamental concepts remain valid. We’ll update the